DRAM Target Row Refresh Blacksmith input validation

CVSS Meta Temp Score
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Current Exploit Price (≈)
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CTI Interest Score
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9.0$0-$5k0.00

A vulnerability was found in DRAM (affected version not known) and classified as very critical. Affected by this issue is an unknown code block of the component Target Row Refresh Handler. The manipulation with an unknown input leads to a privilege escalation vulnerability. Using CWE to declare the problem leads to CWE-20. Impacted is confidentiality, integrity, and availability. CVE summarizes:

Modern DRAM devices (PC-DDR4, LPDDR4X) are affected by a vulnerability in their internal Target Row Refresh (TRR) mitigation against Rowhammer attacks. Novel non-uniform Rowhammer access patterns, consisting of aggressors with different frequencies, phases, and amplitudes allow triggering bit flips on affected memory modules using our Blacksmith fuzzer. The patterns generated by Blacksmith were able to trigger bitflips on all 40 PC-DDR4 DRAM devices in our test pool, which cover the three major DRAM manufacturers: Samsung, SK Hynix, and Micron. This means that, even when chips advertised as Rowhammer-free are used, attackers may still be able to exploit Rowhammer. For example, this enables privilege-escalation attacks against the kernel or binaries such as the sudo binary, and also triggering bit flips in RSA-2048 keys (e.g., SSH keys) to gain cross-tenant virtual-machine access. We can confirm that DRAM devices acquired in July 2020 with DRAM chips from all three major DRAM vendors (Samsung, SK Hynix, Micron) are affected by this vulnerability. For more details, please refer to our publication.

The weakness was shared 11/16/2021. The advisory is available at comsec.ethz.ch. This vulnerability is handled as CVE-2021-42114 since 10/08/2021. The exploitation is known to be difficult. The attack may be launched remotely. No form of authentication is required for exploitation. The technical details are unknown and an exploit is not available. The structure of the vulnerability defines a possible price range of USD $0-$5k at the moment (estimation calculated on 11/19/2021).

There is no information about possible countermeasures known. It may be suggested to replace the affected object with an alternative product.

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VulDB Meta Base Score: 9.0
VulDB Meta Temp Score: 9.0

VulDB Base Score: 9.0
VulDB Temp Score: 9.0
VulDB Vector: 🔒
VulDB Reliability: 🔍

CNA Base Score: 9.0
CNA Vector: 🔒

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VulDB Base Score: 🔒
VulDB Temp Score: 🔒
VulDB Reliability: 🔍

Exploitinginfoedit

Class: Privilege escalation
CWE: CWE-20
ATT&CK: Unknown

Local: No
Remote: Yes

Availability: 🔒
Status: Not defined
Price Prediction: 🔍
Current Price Estimation: 🔒

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Threat Intelligenceinfoedit

Interest: 🔍
Active Actors: 🔍
Active APT Groups: 🔍

Countermeasuresinfoedit

Recommended: no mitigation known
Status: 🔍

0-Day Time: 🔒

Timelineinfoedit

10/08/2021 CVE assigned
11/16/2021 +39 days Advisory disclosed
11/16/2021 +0 days VulDB entry created
11/19/2021 +3 days VulDB last update

Sourcesinfoedit

Advisory: comsec.ethz.ch
Status: Confirmed
Confirmation: 🔒

CVE: CVE-2021-42114 (🔒)

Entryinfoedit

Created: 11/16/2021 08:08 AM
Updated: 11/19/2021 08:08 AM
Changes: (11) vulnerability_cwe exploit_price_0day vulnerability_cvss3_cna_basescore vulnerability_cvss3_cna_av vulnerability_cvss3_cna_ac vulnerability_cvss3_cna_pr vulnerability_cvss3_cna_ui vulnerability_cvss3_cna_s vulnerability_cvss3_cna_c vulnerability_cvss3_cna_i vulnerability_cvss3_cna_a
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